How Does Addiction Start?

Written by Steve Rose

Steve Rose, PhD, is an addiction counsellor and former academic researcher, committed to conveying complex topics in simple language.

As an addiction counselor, I have witnessed firsthand the devastating impact that addiction can have on the lives of those it touches, as well as the challenges that individuals face on their journey towards recovery.

This article aims to shed light on the intricate process through which addiction starts to take hold and progresses, with the hope that increased understanding can lead to more effective prevention, intervention, and treatment strategies.

By recognizing the insidious nature of how addiction starts, we can better support those who are struggling, foster empathy and compassion, and ultimately facilitate healing for both the individual and their loved ones.

The Allure of Escape

In an increasingly demanding and fast-paced world, the desire to escape the burdens and pressures of daily life is a common thread that runs through the human experience.

Whether it be a weary office worker seeking solace in a glass of wine at the end of a long day, or a teenager experimenting with recreational drugs at a party, the initial attraction to a substance or behavior is often rooted in a quest for relief.

The promise of temporary respite from the mundane, the opportunity to experience a brief interlude of pleasure, or the chance to feel a connection that transcends the boundaries of the self – these are the siren songs that lure the unsuspecting into the treacherous waters of addiction.

The Brain’s Adaptation to Stimuli

As individuals continue to indulge in their chosen substance or behavior, their brains undergo a series of neurobiological adaptations that serve to reinforce the compulsive nature of addiction.

Dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in the brain’s reward and pleasure centers, is released in response to the addictive substance or action. This flood of dopamine creates a sense of euphoria, a pleasurable sensation that the brain is eager to repeat.

Over time, the brain’s reward system becomes increasingly sensitized to the addictive substance or behavior, leading to a decrease in the natural production of dopamine and other neurotransmitters. This results in a diminished capacity for experiencing pleasure through normal, everyday activities.

As a consequence, the individual begins to crave the addictive substance or behavior in order to restore the dopamine levels and alleviate the growing sense of discontent and unease.

Loss of Self-Control

As the compulsion to engage in the addictive behavior intensifies, individuals often find their self-control and resolve eroding away like sand beneath the relentless tide.

Priorities that once held a place of importance in their lives – relationships, career aspirations, and personal growth – become subordinated to the pursuit of the next fix. This shift in priorities is accompanied by a corresponding warping of personal values, as the desperate need to satisfy the cravings overrides ethical considerations and moral boundaries.

This decline in self-control is further exacerbated by the physiological changes that occur within the brain as a result of the addiction. The prefrontal cortex, a region of the brain responsible for decision-making, impulse control, and the regulation of emotions, becomes impaired as the neural pathways that connect it to the reward system are weakened. This impairs the individual’s ability to resist the cravings, leading to a downward spiral of compulsive behavior and ever-increasing dependency.

The Transformation of Refuge into Captivity

One of the most insidious aspects of addiction is the way in which the substances or behaviors that initially served as a source of comfort and relief become the very agents of torment and suffering.

The fleeting moments of respite that were once the addictive behavior’s raison d’être are replaced by a relentless cycle of craving and withdrawal, as the body and brain become physiologically dependent on the substance or activity.

As the individual’s tolerance for the addictive substance or behavior increases, they are required to consume ever-greater quantities or engage in increasingly intense activities to achieve the same level of euphoria they once enjoyed. This escalation often leads to a series of negative consequences – physical, emotional, and social – that serve to further entrench the addiction.

The tragic irony of this transformation is that the individual becomes trapped in a vicious cycle: the very thing they sought refuge in now holds them captive, and their attempts to break free only serve to tighten the chains of dependency.

The need for the addictive substance or behavior becomes all-consuming, overshadowing every aspect of their lives and leaving them feeling isolated, hopeless, and powerless to change their circumstances.

The Entanglement of Identity and Addiction

As the grip of addiction tightens, it becomes increasingly difficult for the individual to separate their sense of self from the compulsions that drive them.

The addiction becomes an intrinsic part of their identity, a core component of their being that permeates every aspect of their lives. This merging of the self with the addiction can lead to a profound sense of shame and self-loathing, as the individual struggles to reconcile their actions with their values and beliefs.

This fusion of identity and addiction further complicates the process of recovery, as the individual must not only confront the physiological and psychological aspects of dependency, but also come to terms with the fact that they have become, in essence, a stranger to themselves.

The process of self-discovery and reintegration can be a long and arduous journey, fraught with setbacks and challenges, but it is a crucial step on the road to recovery.

The Metaphor of the Pitcher Plant

The progression of addiction can be aptly illustrated through the metaphor of the pitcher plant, a carnivorous plant that lures insects into its deep, tubular leaves with the promise of sweet nectar. The insects, enticed by the alluring scent and the prospect of nourishment, unwittingly venture into the plant’s seemingly benign interior. However, once inside, they find themselves trapped in a slippery prison from which escape becomes increasingly improbable.

As the insects descend further into the pitcher plant, they encounter an environment that becomes more and more inhospitable. The plant’s interior walls are lined with downward-pointing hairs that impede their progress, making it nearly impossible for them to climb back up towards the opening. The deeper they go, the more they become immersed in the plant’s digestive fluids, which ultimately consume them, providing sustenance for the plant and sealing the insects’ fate.

In the context of addiction, the pitcher plant serves as a powerful metaphor for the deceptive and insidious nature of the disease. Like the sweet nectar that tempts the insects, the initial foray into addictive substances or behaviors often appears harmless, even enticing, offering a momentary escape from the stresses and challenges of daily life. Individuals are drawn in by the promise of pleasure, relief, or connection, unaware of the perilous journey that lies ahead.

As they continue to engage in the addictive behavior, the metaphorical walls of the pitcher plant become increasingly slippery, making it more and more difficult to regain a foothold and reverse course. The individual’s self-control and resolve begin to wane, their priorities shift, and their values become distorted, mirroring the treacherous descent of the insects within the pitcher plant.

Ultimately, like the insects that find themselves submerged in the plant’s digestive fluids, individuals caught in the grip of addiction may feel as though they are drowning in a sea of consequences – physical, emotional, and social. The addiction that once seemed like a refuge becomes a prison, and the individual is left to grapple with the immense challenges of breaking free from its grasp.

The metaphor of the pitcher plant serves as a poignant reminder of the deceptive nature of addiction and the importance of vigilance, awareness, and early intervention. By understanding the gradual and insidious process through which addiction takes hold, we can better support those who are struggling, and work towards creating a society that is better equipped to prevent, identify, and treat this devastating disease.


The path to addiction is a dark and treacherous one, marked by a gradual erosion of self-control, a warping of values, and an inexorable descent into dependency.

By understanding the complex interplay of neurobiology, psychology, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of addiction, we can better equip ourselves to recognize the warning signs, support those who are struggling, and create effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Ultimately, the key to addressing the epidemic of addiction lies not in demonizing those who have succumbed to its grasp, but in fostering empathy, understanding, and compassion. By recognizing that addiction is a multifaceted disease that affects individuals from all walks of life, we can break down the barriers of stigma and shame that so often hinder the healing process.

It is only through a collective effort, grounded in education, support, and a commitment to treating addiction as the complex and nuanced issue it is, that we can hope to stem the tide and reclaim the lives that have been lost to this devastating affliction.

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Struggling with an addiction?

If you’re struggling with an addiction, it can be difficult to stop. Gaining short-term relief, at a long-term cost, you may start to wonder if it’s even worth it anymore. If you’re looking to make some changes, feel free to reach out. I offer individual addiction counselling to clients in the US and Canada. If you’re interested in learning more, you can send me a message here.

Other Mental Health Resources

If you are struggling with other mental health issues or are looking for a specialist near you, use the Psychology Today therapist directory here to find a practitioner who specializes in your area of concern.

If you require a lower-cost option, you can check out It is one of the most flexible forms of online counseling. Their main benefit is lower costs, high accessibility through their mobile app, and the ability to switch counselors quickly and easily, until you find the right fit.

*As an affiliate partner with Better Help, I receive a referral fee if you purchase products or services through the links provided.

As always, it is important to be critical when seeking help, since the quality of counselors are not consistent. If you are not feeling supported, it may be helpful to seek out another practitioner. I wrote an article on things to consider here.

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